With the Đổi mới renewal policies of 1986, the Communist state liberalized its economy and opened the door to greater civil liberties and freedoms of association. At the turn of the 2000s, the country saw an increase in the number of non-governmental organizations and local associations similar to those observed during the pre-revolution years. New opportunities for citizen engagement thereby emerged, though these groups must still negotiate their actions with the state and respect its decisional authority (Lux and Straussman, 2004). It’s within this context of liberalization and of a partial opening towards citizen action that Think Playgrounds and DIY urbanism emerged on the scene.
hello darkness my old friend